# Prolog examples

## Table of Contents

## 8-puzzle

Prolog does depth-first search natively. So, let’s exploit that to solve the 8-puzzle problem.

First, we define the goal:

goal([1,2,3, 4,0,5, 6,7,8]).

Now, we define all the possible moves (a bit laboriously):

%% From: http://www-module.cs.york.ac.uk/lpa/prac2009/prolog-lab-3.pdf %% move left in the top row move([X1,0,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [0,X1,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,X2,0, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,0,X2, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9]). %% move left in the middle row move([X1,X2,X3, X4,0,X6,X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, 0,X4,X6,X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,0,X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,0,X5,X7,X8,X9]). %% move left in the bottom row move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,0,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, 0,X7,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,0], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,0,X8]). %% move right in the top row move([0,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X2,0,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,0,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X3,0, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9]). %% move right in the middle row move([X1,X2,X3, 0,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X5,0,X6, X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,0,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X6,0, X7,X8,X9]). %% move right in the bottom row move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6,0,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6,X8,0,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6,X7,0,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6,X7,X9,0]). %% move up from the middle row move([X1,X2,X3, 0,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [0,X2,X3, X1,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,0,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,0,X3, X4,X2,X6, X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,0, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,0, X4,X5,X3, X7,X8,X9]). %% move up from the bottom row move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,0,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,0,X6, X7,X5,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,0], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,0, X7,X8,X6]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, 0,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, 0,X5,X6, X4,X8,X9]). %% move up from the top row move([0,X2,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X4,X2,X3, 0,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,0,X3, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X5,X3, X4,0,X6, X7,X8,X9]). move([X1,X2,0, X4,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X6, X4,X5,0, X7,X8,X9]). %% move down from the middle row move([X1,X2,X3, 0,X5,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X7,X5,X6, 0,X8,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,0,X6, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X8,X6, X7,0,X9]). move([X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,0, X7,X8,X9], [X1,X2,X3, X4,X5,X9, X7,X8,0]).

Now we can define depth-first search. Since Prolog does this naturally (it searches for values of variables to make predicates true), we just need to specify what should happen if the goal is not immediately found (i.e., a move should be made).

dfsSimplest(S, [S]) :- goal(S). dfsSimplest(S, [S|Rest]) :- move(S, S2), dfsSimplest(S2, Rest).

Let’s try it with an initial state that is one *left* move away from
the goal.

?- dfsSimplest([1,2,3, 0,4,5, 6,7,8], Path). Path = [[1, 2, 3, 0, 4, 5, 6, 7|...], [1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 5, 6|...]] .

Ok, it found the right move (the path lists two boards, the initial and the goal).

If we start with an initial board that is one *down* move away from
the goal, …

?- dfs([1,2,3, 4,7,5, 6,0,8], Path). .... get a cup of coffee now? ERROR: Out of local stack

Prolog never found the answer. This is because it started with left
moves, then more left moves, etc…. If we rearrange the `move`

predicates so that the up-moves are first, the path is found
immediately again.

Apart from rearranging our move predicates, we can also avoid the problem of searching from the same states more than once. We need to keep track of “checked” states, so we’ll add another parameter to our predicate:

dfs(S, Path, Path) :- goal(S). dfs(S, Checked, Path) :- % try a move move(S, S2), % ensure the resulting state is new \+member(S2, Checked), % and that this state leads to the goal dfs(S2, [S2|Checked], Path).

Let’s try it:

?- dfs([1,2,3, 0,4,5, 6,7,8], [], Path). Path = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 5, 6, 7|...]] .

Seems to work with the initial state just one *left* move from the
goal.

Now let’s make an initial state on *up* move from the goal. Recall
that naive DFS ran out of memory (because it continued checking from
repeated states).

?- dfs([1,2,3, 4,7,5, 6,0,8], [], Path), length(Path, N). Path = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 5, 6, 7|...], [1, 2, 3, 0, 4, 5, 6|...], [0, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5|...], [2, 0, 3, 1, 4|...], [2, 3, 0, 1|...], [2, 3, 5|...], [2, 3|...], [2|...], [...|...]|...], N = 23759 .

23,759 moves (in the *solution*), when only one move was needed. The
order of predicates in the database can be of critical importance.

## A maze “game”

If you took my CSE 230 class, you’ll remember building a maze game. Rooms were connected to other rooms, and players could walk through them. Each room had a description, and possibly even monsters that mocked you as you passed through.

Anyway, building such a game in Prolog is trivial (save for the monsters). Let’s start with some room descriptions:

room(garden, 'Garden', 'You are in the Garden. The trees and shrubs appear...'). room(hallway, 'Hallway', 'You are in the Hallway. Dusty broken lamps and flower pots...'). room(kitchen, 'Kitchen', 'You are in the kitchen. Knives, pots, pans, ...'). room(library, 'Library', 'You are among many books in the Library...'). room(lair, 'Lair', 'You have found an apparently quite evil lair, of all things...'). connected(north, library, hallway). connected(south, hallway, library). connected(down, library, lair). connected(up, lair, library). connected(west, library, garden). connected(east, garden, library). connected(west, hallway, kitchen). connected(east, kitchen, hallway).

We’ll add a predicate that causes the description of our room to be printed:

% this predicate has no inputs print_location :- current_room(Current), room(Current, Name, Description), % nl means "newline" print(Name), nl, print(Description), nl.

This predicate requires that `current_room`

is a predicate that gives
the current room. E.g., `current_room(library).`

But the current room should change, naturally. We can change the facts
of the database in the middle of running the program by using
`retract`

and `assertz`

. The `retract`

predicate (“meta-predicate”
technically) takes as input a predicate and removes it from current
facts. On the other hand, `assertz`

adds a predicate to the list of
facts, at the bottom of the list (that’s what the `z`

means; the
alternative is to add the new fact at the top, in which case you use
`asserta`

).

We have to indicate that the `current_room`

predicate may be changed,
so we put this in our file:

:- dynamic current_room/1.

Now we can define a change room predicate:

change_room(NewRoom) :- current_room(Current), retract(current_room(Current)), assertz(current_room(NewRoom)).

We’ll want user input. Here is a quick & dirty way that supports the word “go” followed by a direction:

:- use_module(library(readln)). :- prompt(_, 'Type a command (or ''help''): '). strip_punctuation([], []). strip_punctuation([Word|Tail], [Word|Result]) :- \+(member(Word, ['.', ',', '?', '!'])), strip_punctuation(Tail, Result). strip_punctuation([_|Tail], Result) :- strip_punctuation(Tail, Result). read_sentence(Input) :- % this is a special predicate from the readln library readln(Input1, _, ".!?", "_0123456789", lowercase), strip_punctuation(Input1, Input). get_input :- read_sentence(Input), get_input(Input). get_input([quit]). get_input(Input) :- process_input(Input), print_location, read_sentence(Input1), get_input(Input1). process_input([help]) :- print('Help...'), nl. process_input([go, Direction]) :- current_room(Current), connected(Direction, Current, NewRoom), change_room(NewRoom). process_input([go, _]) :- print('No exit that direction.'), nl. process_input([_]) :- print('Huh?'), nl, nl.

Finally, we define a `play`

predicate that starts the whole thing:

play :- retractall(current_room(_)), assertz(current_room(library)), print_location, get_input.

Here is how we play:

?- play. Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): go west. Garden You are in the Garden. The trees and shrubs appear... Type a command (or 'help'): go bizarre. No exit that direction. Garden You are in the Garden. The trees and shrubs appear... Type a command (or 'help'): help. Help... Garden You are in the Garden. The trees and shrubs appear... Type a command (or 'help'): go east. Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): go down. Lair You have found an apparently quite evil lair, of all things... Type a command (or 'help'): quit. true

Now, let’s make it a little more interesting. Suppose we have switches
that can be toggled, and access to certain rooms requires that certain
switches have been toggled. We’ll first indicate that the `toggled`

predicate is dynamic (will be asserted and retracted):

:- dynamic toggled/1.

We’ll also add support for typing “toggle switch15” or whatever:

process_input([toggle, Switch]) :- toggle(Switch), % retrieve a set of switches that have been toggled setof(X, toggled(X), Switches), % print these print('Toggled switches: '), print(Switches), nl. process_input([toggle, _]) :- print('Cannot toggle that switch.'), nl.

We’ll have three switches. Switch 1 can be toggled whenever. But switch 2 requires that switch 1 is already toggled, and switch 3 requires that switch 2 is already toggled.

toggle(switch1) :- assertz(toggled(switch1)). toggle(switch2) :- toggled(switch1), assertz(toggled(switch2)). toggle(switch3) :- toggled(switch2), assertz(toggled(switch3)).

Finally, let’s make the lair only accessible if switch 3 is toggled (of course, we remove the ‘down’ connection from the library and replace it with this one):

```
connected(down, library, lair) :- toggled(switch3).
```

And the `play`

predicate is updated to retract all toggle states when
we start the game:

play :- retractall(current_room(_)), retractall(toggled(_)), assertz(current_room(library)), print_location, get_input.

Let’s play!

?- play. Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): go down. No exit that direction. Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): toggle switch3. Cannot toggle that switch. Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): toggle switch2. Cannot toggle that switch. Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): toggle switch1. Toggled switches: [switch1] Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): toggle switch2. Toggled switches: [switch1,switch2] Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): toggle switch3. Toggled switches: [switch1,switch2,switch3] Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): go down. Lair You have found an apparently quite evil lair, of all things... Type a command (or 'help'): go up. Library You are among many books in the Library... Type a command (or 'help'): quit. true

Hopefully you can imagine how the game can be improved from here. For
example, how do we require that switch 1 can only be toggled in the
garden? Hint: the answer involves modifying `toggle(switch1)`

predicate to include the requirement that the `current_room`

predicate
has a certain value…